The Matsiguenga are around 10,000 people living along the Urubamba river, in Peru´s Cusco state. Most of the area of the Machiguenga territory in the lower Urubamba, is now superimposed by hydrocarbons concessions (lots 56, 57, 58 and 88). The lot 88 (the only one producing gas nowadays), is exploited by a consortium that runs the Camisea Gas Project, the biggest gas extraction project in the country. Camisea began transporting gas to the coast in 2004.

The project has been severely criticized nationwide and internationally due to its low standards of social and environmental management, the lack of an effective dialogue with the affected communities, the lack of transparency and the violation of indigenous rights.